Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO)
The FNEGE 2022 ranking of management journals, officially published at the end of June, places RIPCO in Rank 3. RIPCO launches a new special issue: The inclusive organization. Read more about SUBMIT
Volume XXV • Issue 63 • 2019 (Already published)
Guest editor(s): Pascal, Lièvre
The experts
Who are they and how can one identify them? How can they be mobilized? Such questions describe the theme of this issue, representing the work of a study group that met for many years within the AGESCO Association, “Association Gestion des Connaissances Société et Organisation”, Knowledge Management and Organization, supervised by Dr. Pascal Lièvre, Clermont Auvergne University. This “expert” matter is being discussed more and more in the context of the rise of knowledge economy. We were at a turning point when knowledge became a very important issue regarding creating value for the company; that s/he who possesses this knowledge is being questioned, as is his or her identification and mobilization. This special issue aims at presenting you with a vista proposing a literary review around these questions. .
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Issue content
Title :  The experts: Introductory article
Author(s) :  Pascal, Lièvre
Abstract :  The purpose of this introduction is to recall, first of all, the theoretical framework in which this figure of the expert in management sciences emerges and, independently, to give an overview of existing work in the field of psychology but also that of sociology. Second of all, we point out the reflections that led to the creation of an epistemic workshop around this theme within the International Association of Knowledge Management for Society and Organizations (AGECSO). And thirdly, we borrow an inclusive definition of the expert in organizations by distinguishing and articulating a cognitive and social dimension. Finally, we present and position the contributions to this special issue with reference to this theoretical perspective
Keywords:  knowledge based economy, expert, cognitive dimension, social dimension
Pages :  5 - 9
Type :  Introduction
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Title :  Expert within organizations: Definition and theoretical framework
Author(s) :  Jean-Philippe, Bootz ; Pascal, Lièvre ; Eric, Schenk
Abstract :  Experts have become an essential figure within organizations. In particular, the advent of the knowledge-based economy has propelled this actor to the center of concerns insofar as it plays a key role in the innovation process. The processes aimed at the development and enhancement of experts are thus tending to multiply. In practice, the qualification of expert is often associated with the number of years of experience or envisaged only in connection with technical skills, so that a generalized confusion appears between expert and experience and between expert and specialist. Our contribution aims to propose a definitional model of the expert within organizations. We characterize the expert by a dimension that is both cognitive and social, which are grouped here in a single framework. The expert is thus understood as an individual who has the competence to analyze and resolve diverse and non-trivial situations by relying on an ability to quickly combine and mobilize scientific and experiential knowledge. It also has social legitimacy, which is based either on strong signals (belonging to a formal institutional structure) or on weak signals (within self-organized networks).
Keywords:  expert, experiential knowledge, scientific knowledge, legitimacy, communities
Pages :  13 - 25
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  The experiential sources of managerial expertise. The case of a mars exploration simulation commander
Author(s) :  Emmanuel, Bonnet
Abstract :  This paper address the possibility to ground managerial expertise on experience. If lived experience can be considered as a source of learning, its contribution for elaborating expert knowledge in management seems much less obvious. Critics have highlighted an ideological tendency to reify management in a generic body of knowledge that does not take into account practices. The aim of this article is less to contribute to the content of such corpus than to apprehend the expertise from an experiential perspective. A pragmatist lens is privileged in order to define experiential expertise as a cognitive, embodied and situated activity. Our fieldwork is a simulation of a Mars exploration in the Utah desert. Adopting an organizational ethnography approach, this article focuses on the practice of the head of mission. This practice, initially considered, as an enigma by the crew, must composed with a collective that unfolds according to different orientations. Results allow us to avoid taken for granted ideas regarding the intrinsic content of managerial expertise and reinforce the importance of the plurality of ways of living an experience for the accomplishment of collective action in an exploration situation. On this basis, we highlight an alternative approach to traditional management learning.
Keywords:  organizational ethnography, managerial expertise, managerial practice, learning, pragmatism
Pages :  27 - 43
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title : 
Author(s) :  Tarik, Chakor
Abstract :  The objective of this article is to analyse a method of labelling consultants in psychosocial risk (PSR) prevention, and to compare it with the actual practices of these new expert figures. A complex and strategic field of knowledge, PSRs have a vague conceptual and terminological scope: these risks can be the subject of a restrictive approach, tending to individualise the risk, limit the employer’s liability and care for the worker on the one hand; and a broad approach, understanding the organisational dimension of the risk, extending the employer’s liability and caring for the work and its organisation on the other hand. This dual interpretation, combined with the power struggles and power relations between employers and employee representatives and the hypermediatization of these new occupational risks (musculoskeletal disorders, burn-out, harassment, etc.), have gradually given a central place to external consultants, with the gradual creation of a market for advice and expertise in the prevention of PSR. Our exploratory study, conducted within the PACA i3r consultant network led by an institutional triptych (DIRECCTE, CARSAT, ARACT), allowed us to first study a method of labelling consultants: the “i3r PACA” label, giving rise to the institutional expert in PSR. In a second step, we interviewed 31 consultants from this network (out of 33) about their co-constructive, adaptive and/or militant prevention practices, which bring out the figure of the political expert. Our discussion will focus on questioning the new hybrid forms between institutional and political experts, particularly with regard to the commodification of advice and expertise in PSR.
Keywords:  PSR, consultants, experts, prevention, certification
Pages :  45 - 61
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  Identification of experts on financial markets
Author(s) :  Stéphane, Cellier-Courtil
Abstract :  The objective of this contribution is to report on the progress concerning the identification of an expert in the financial markets. This research was undertaken within the framework of a thesis whose objective was an analysis of the knowledge effectively mobilized by actors of the financial industry in order to understand their investment choices in a context of decision-making in situation. During this work, it appeared necessary to clarify a definition of the concept of expert of the financial markets. It was built up over time and following multiple meetings with financial players. The basis of our questioning is based on the fact that an expert in the financial markets is a person who invests savings and suffers all the consequences as well financial, psychological or reputation. Our reflection was based on the theoretical corpus developed by the Naturalistic Decision Making. This allows both to identify criteria that aim to identify an expert via peer recognition but also to better specify the characteristics of this expertise via the ability to distinguish typical situations, the ability to make differences and finally the ability to build stories to account for situations. In conclusion, we draw some peculiarities from the financial markets expert, which is a context where evolution, uncertainty and risk mix.
Keywords:  investigation, experts, financial markets, equities, naturalistic decision making
Pages :  63 - 74
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title : 
Author(s) :  Michel, RECOPE ; Hélène, FACHE ; Sandra, Rmadi Said
Abstract :  Our contribution, backed by research conducted due to dissatisfactions arising from the field of volleyball training, strives to invest a little-known aspect favouring access to expertise. It is in line with the recent extensions of Canguilhem’s enactive approach and philosophy of life, norms and values. We study the activity of two expert volleyball players through systematic observations and self-confrontation interviews. The confrontation of behavioural materials and verbatim reveals a coherence common to both players, but also to some novices, those precisely who perform and progress more than the others. The results suggest that sensitivity to is, at the basis of this coherence, a crucial vector of expertise. It is the entity integrating affectivity, cognition and motor skills, as well as the instance of mobilizing the person towards what is important to him or her. Experts and some novices share a common sensibility and we detail the reasons why this sensibility favours access to expertise. The expert and the novice should no longer be considered as opposites, because their activity can be oriented by the same sensitivity to; it is necessary to distinguish and link two axes of analysis: that of sensitivity and that of expertise. We defend the principle that to better understand expertise is to understand the conditions that favour it in order to try to design training aimed at accessing it.
Keywords:  activity, expertise, training, sensitivity to, volleyball
Pages :  75 - 96
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
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