Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO)
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Volume XVIII • Issue 44 • 2012 (Already published)
(Regular issue)
Entrepreneurial Cognition
Issue content
Title :  Systemic modelling methodology. Applications for Entrepreneurial Actors
Author(s) :  Louis Jacques, Filion
Abstract :  This text sets out a representations research methodology that establishes parameters and models to help understand and prepare for entrepreneurial practice. The proposed methodology, referred to as systemic modelling methodology or SMM, is based on a qualitative research process that can be applied at three levels, namely: (1) Life histories (description and analysis), (2) Human and organizational activities (connections and hierarchies – description and analysis) and (3) Conceptual thinking (preparation of models and identification of concepts for the design and performance of human activities). The proposed methodology makes empirical use of the soft systems method developed by Peter Checkland, which includes an analysis and comparison of the organizational actor’s real world and subjective world. The methodology proposed here can be used to identify parameters, models or meta-models for use in educating and training future practitioners. In this text, the focus is on entrepreneurial actors.
Keywords:  systemic modeling, flexible systems thinking, cognitive representation, entrepreneurial representations
Pages :  29 - 70
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Filion, L. (2012) Méthodologie de modélisation systémique. Applications à des acteurs entrepreneuriaux. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 29-70
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Title :  What Qualitative Data Analysis means
Author(s) :  Catherine, Voynnet Fourboul
Abstract :  In France, qualitative research is characterized by the historical use of content analysis. This technique brings together very different approaches that are not very explicit and sometimes confusing. The qualitative data analysis stemming from Anglo-Saxon conception has just appeared in France. It differs strongly from the orthodox methods in practice in France. The major difference lies in the aim of theory building, the framework of grounded theory. Researchers build a categorization of the concepts emerging from the field transcriptions. On this basis they can adopt a strategy related both to discovery of in depth categories, and to the integration of their properties (with for example the quantification and qualification of the links between concepts). The work of analysis and theory building is a process of innovation strongly internalized compared to the one of content analysis (in the French acception).
Keywords:  content analysis, qualitative data analysis, categorization, theoretical construction, grounded theory
Pages :  71 - 88
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Voynnet Fourboul, C. (2012) Ce que « analyse de données qualitatives » veut dire. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 71-88
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Title :  The construction of sense. How to develop the operationalization of a complex concept thanks to Grounded Theory?
Author(s) :  Lionel, Garreau
Abstract :  Grounded Theory is a general analysis method that allows building a theory from empirical data. We propose to question the ability of the Grounded Theory to tackle complex concepts. We use a study of the concept of sense, based on the operationalization of this concept of as well as a model of the construction of sense, in order to evaluate the capacities of generalization and innovation of Grounded Theory. We show that Grounded Theory should do away with the constant reference to induction in order to move to an alternation of induction and deduction in order to provide results in accordance with its discovery and scientific potential
Keywords:  generalizability, operationalization, meaning, grounded theory, innovation
Pages :  89 - 115
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Garreau, L. (2012) La méthode enracinée. Une méthodologie permettant de proposer des cadres conceptuels depuis des données empiriques ou comment accéder à l'opérationnalisation d'un concept complexe au travers de la théorie enracinée ?. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 89-115
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Title :  Entrepreneurial representations and the biographic method: an innovative research prospect
Author(s) :  Hikari, Akizawa ; Louis Jacques, Filion
Abstract :  A lot of research in the humanities, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, was developed using the biographic method, which attained the height of its popularity in the United States in the 1920s and 1930s, but was gradually replaced from the 1940s onwards by a variety of other field research approaches, and later by mail or e-mail surveys. Since the 1980s, however, there has been renewed interest in it, and the method has made something of a comeback. The purpose of this text, written by two researchers who are longstanding supporters of the biographic method, is to provide an introduction for emerging researchers. The text presents an overview of the method, along with guidelines for its application and suggestions for use of its findings in a variety of situations including teaching. The authors begin by observing the method’s return to popularity, and go on to identify its considerable potential for research in the humanities, and especially for studying entrepreneurial representations. The second part of the text addresses various potential applications, and the third looks at how to use and assess the findings, and discusses the importance of aiming for transcendent authenticity when using the method. The authors conclude by examining the method’s potential role in helping to define the field of entrepreneurship more precisely as a discipline.
Keywords:  case studies, life stories, biographical method, entrepreneurial representations
Pages :  117 - 146
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Akizawa, H. et Filion, L. (2012) La méthode biographique. Approche structurante pour l'étude des représentations entrepreneuriales. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 117-146
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Title :  The dramatic method
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion
Abstract :  The author describes the construction of writing stories from experience to the presentation of Entrepreneurial representations in the form of theatrical representations.
Keywords:  auto entrepreneur, creation, dramaturgy, writing, entrepreneurship, leisure, micro entrepreneur, passion, representation, scriptural, theater, business
Pages :  147 - 168
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Bourion, C. (2012) La méthode dramaturgique. Comment utiliser la représentation théâtrale dramaturgique selon Goffman pour fonder son écriture sur des REX décrivant l'entrepreneuriat de passion, un processus qui tente l'optimisation d'une représentation imaginaire ?. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 147-168
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Title :  How to translate cognitive universes into organisational representations ? A comparison of three methodologies, conceptual maps, ALCESTE and the EFQM Excellence Model
Author(s) :  Stéphane, Trébucq
Abstract :  Several qualitative methods can be used to represent organisations. In this article, three different approaches have be tested. The first one is based on conceptual maps, which are relatively unknown, although they are rooted in a robust learning theory developed by Ausubel. We show how such a methodology can be used during a course in finance in order to analyze the Enron scandal. Another promising way to modelize organisations is ALCESTE, an automatic content analysis software. Clusters of words are detected, and with a textual dataset composed of the L’Oréal group’s sustainability reports, we illustrate how a corporate image can be constructed and animated. Finally, we show how evaluative questions can provide another way to visualize some organisational characteristics. In the case of a SME, we show how the EFQM Excellence model can provide an interesting and new picture of a company.
Keywords:  conceptual map, ALCESTE, EFQM, organizational image, qualitative analysis
Pages :  169 - 178
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Trébucq, S. (2012) Comment traduire des univers cognitifs en représentations organisationnelles ? Comparaison de trois méthodologies : les cartes conceptuelles, ALCESTE et le modèle EFQM. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 169-178
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Title :  Understanding links between mental representations and the entrepreneurial process. Example of a methodological framework
Author(s) :  Fabienne, Bornard
Abstract :  This paper presents the methodological framework used in a project which aimed to study entrepreneurial representations during the process of setting up a company. Four cases were analysed (and six entrepreneurs), with a longitudinal approach. We wanted to understand how the representations of the project were constructed, their real content and how they can influence the entrepreneur’s behaviour when setting up their companies. However the study of the entrepreneurial process already brings to light a certain number of methodological difficulties, added to those concerned with the study of mental representations. This research is focused on the entrepreneurial process in the period following the decision to create the company, a period which has been rather neglected by researchers. It includes some original methods as schematization exercices and the use of the Visual Card Sort method to build cognitive cards.
Keywords:  interviews, training, entrepreneurial profile, cognitive representations, psychology
Pages :  179 - 198
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Bornard, F. (2012) Les liens entre représentation mentale et processus de création d'entreprise. Exemple d'un dispositif méthodologique. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 179-198
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Title :  Entrepreneurial representations and shared vision: a methodological approach to study small busienss management teams
Author(s) :  Edmilson, Lima
Abstract :  This text presents the qualitative methodological approach used in a five-year longitudinal study of a specific type of entrepreneurial representation, namely the shared vision. It describes the approach in the hope that it will be taken up and applied by other researchers in the future. The approach combines grounded theory with critical period analysis as a theoretical strategy, using data on the formation and development of a shared vision within a small business management team. The approach brought three main benefits to the study: first, it enhanced the effect of combining the two theoretical strategies by using a qualitative data analysis software application to study the shared vision; second, it showed the extent to which the typologies developed during the study were fundamental in organizing and examining the data using a grid conducive to the development of explanatory models; and third, it showed the importance of models, graphic representations and tables in achieving transparency, a better understanding of the subject, and the potential to reproduce the method in other scientific studies. The text concludes with some suggestions for further research.
Keywords:  management teams, SMEs, entrepreneurial representations, shared vision, case study
Pages :  199 - 225
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Lima, E. (2012) Les liens entre représentations entrepreneuriales et vision partagée. Étude d'équipes de dirigeants de PME. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 199-225
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Title :  The magnifying glass principle the use of magnification in research
Author(s) :  Louis Jacques, Filion
Abstract :  This text explores, discusses and clarifies the magnification process, which can be used to improve many types of research, and especially qualitative field research. The author proposes four levels of magnification and six conditions for its application. The text shows that the less familiar the researcher is with the research context, the more he or she will benefit from the effects of magnification, which will help to clarify the elements of the real world being explored. The thoughts presented in the text are based on the author’s own experience as a researcher.
Keywords:  amplification and research, amplification
Pages :  226 - 240
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Filion, L. (2012) Le principe de la loupe. Processus d'amplification au cours d'une démarche de recherche. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 226-240
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Title :  The entrepreneurial profile as a representation of action: a quantitative approach to measuring entrepreneurial competencies
Author(s) :  Sandro Afonso, Morales ; Silvana Bernardes, Rosa
Abstract :  This text presents the “targeted interview for entrepreneurial competency assessment”, or simply the “targeted interview”, as a means of assessing and measuring entrepreneurial competency in order to draw up a competency profile for a subject or population. The method as presented in the text is based on a competency model designed for entrepreneurship education and focused on behaviour. A model is proposed to help understand the competencies that make up an entrepreneurial system. The “targeted interview” method is described as a series of steps. Anyone wishing to implement the method must understand the basic concepts of entrepreneurial activity, as well as the difference, in the entrepreneurial subject’s discourse, between his or her beliefs and actions (i.e. the internal reality and objective reality). Once the weaknesses of the profile have been identified, entrepreneurship training can be undertaken, with a view to rebalancing the competency set, speeding up learning and making the learning process more effective. The methodology can also be used to assess the effectiveness of training initiatives, by measuring competencies before and after the initiative takes place. In addition, it can measure the impact of different training initiatives applied to different audiences, in terms of entrepreneurial competency gains.
Keywords:  interviews, training, entrepreneurial profile, cognitive representations, psychology
Pages :  241 - 286
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Morales, S. et Rosa, S. (2012) Allouer son attention au profil de l'entrepreneur. Une représentation graphique : méthodologie de mesure quantitative de compétences entrepreneuriales. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 241-286
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Title :  A Scientometric Approach to Analyzing Mind maps: the example of Social Networking in Management Sciences and Entrepreneurship
Author(s) :  Franck, Barès ; Patrick, Bourgne ; Thomas, Froehlicher
Abstract :  The interest that researchers in Management Sciences take in analyzing social networking is undeniable. However it is important to highlight the lack of any scientometric study which seeks, using the rigour of quantitative methods, to understand the parameters of the relatively recent enthusiasm for this phenomenon in the field of entrepreneurship. Our paper / article responds to this lack, by proposing a scientometric and thematic approach, based on the most significant publications in Management Sciences. With this as our objective, we have analyzed ‘Business Source Premier’, one of the world’s major data bases in business.
Keywords:  scientometry, social network theory, research methodology
Pages :  287 - 302
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Barès, F., Bourgne, P. et Froehlicher, T. (2012) Allouer son attention à l'univers des réseaux sociaux. Leur détermination scientométrique élaborée depuis 1793 occurrences tirées de 700 réfèrences anglaises traitées par Tropes. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 287-302
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Title :  Importance of entrepreneurial situations: its consideration in entrepreneurship research
Author(s) :  Christophe, Schmitt
Abstract :  Research in entrepreneurship has grown around the entrepreneur (approach by the traits) and actions (approach by the facts). In recent years, we are witnessing the emergence of a complementary approach that can be classified as approach by processes, but it has yet to be clarified its content and its contours. This article is about this perspective. The work on the entrepreneurial vision has served as a starting point, particularly the dichotomy that exists between the present and the future in entrepreneurship. To link future and present, the author proposes to use an original reading grid to deal with the complexity of the entrepreneurial phenomenon: the entrepreneurial situations. The first part recounts the evolution of this concept in a temporal perspective through the main directions taken by research in entrepreneurship, and to propose a definition of the concept of entrepreneurial situation. The second part aims at characterizing the entrepreneurial situations and leads to introduce other concepts such as space of problematization, plausible hypothesis, the robustness or even the coherence.
Keywords:  future, situation, entrepreneurship
Pages :  303 - 321
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Schmitt, C. (2012) Allouer son attention aux situations entrepreuneuriales. Leurs prises en compte dans la Recherche en entrepreneuriat. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 303-321
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Title :  Alocate an important attention to business opportunities
Author(s) :  Ilias, Majdouline
Abstract :  Entrepreneurship research has focused since the early 1990s on a process approach (Hernandez, 1999, Fayolle, 2004, Schmitt 2006). The identification or construction of business opportunity is often represented as the first stage of the entrepreneurial process (Gartner, 1985; Vesper, 1990; Filion, 1996; Schmitt, 2005). The attention of the small entrepreneur is allocated permanently and totally to the identification of business opportunity (Majdouline & Schmitt, 2009). This feature constantly reorganizes its representations in a continuous dynamic. According to Fayolle (2004), it is necessary to describe and explain the entrepreneurial situations in "static and dynamic dimensions. In this work, we focus on the dynamics in the small business through a qualitative approach in two cases of Moroccan entrepreneurs.
Keywords:  entrepreneurial process, entrepreneurial watch, entrepreneurship
Pages :  323 - 341
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Majdouline, I. (2012) Allouer une hyper attention aux occasions d'affaire. L'attention du petit entrepreneur est allouée en permanence et en totalité à l'identification d'occasion d'affaire. Cette caractéristique réorganise en permanence ses représentations. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 323-341
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Title :  Intersubjectivist approach and Methodology problems in Management and entrepreneurship with a focus on the question of individual representations
Author(s) :  Robert, Paturel ; Thierry, Lévy-Tadjine
Abstract :  This text argues that focusing on individual representations and intersubjectivity in business and entrepreneurship situations is seriously questionning the research’ methodology and epistemology. The first part of the article describe the general problem of shared representations by entrepreneurial actors and scientists. The second part discusses the possible grounded interactions that may emerge. And finally, the third part proposes a new tool for helping scientists to discuss about their shared representations. It is based on a development of STRAWSON’s philosophical theory of Transcendantal Argument.
Keywords:  transcendental argument, epistemology, intersubjectivity, researcher-field relation, representations, entrepreneurship
Pages :  343 - 366
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Lévy-Tadjine, T. et Paturel, R. (2012) Représentations et questions de méthodes dans une perspective intersubjective. L'exemple de l'Entrepreneuriat et du Management. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO), XVIII(44), pp. 343-366
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