Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO)
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Volume V • Issue 09 • 1998 (Already published)
(Regular issue)
The social scene : crisis, change, emergence
Issue content
Title :  Editorial
Author(s) :  Jacqueline, Barus-Michel ; Florence, Giust-Desprairies
Pages :  3 - 5
Type :  Editorial
Title :  Changes of meaning and movements of references
Author(s) :  Jacqueline, Barus-Michel
Abstract :  The crises which affect social units are the effect of a mutation in which econornics and technology have outstripped politics and social considerations. The subject finds himself discharged. having lost meaning. links have been distended and give way to violence and abandon the individual to isolation. But isn't it the impulse itself that calls for renewing links and revives energy for new solidarity? Thus the former references that have been lost are seen to emerge from the forms of sociality in proximity and mutual recognition. which restore meaning and start another mutation in which the subject, this time, will find his place again, unless they are rough malines that are destined to succumb to the arbitrary authority of economics.
Keywords:  meaning, movements of references
Pages :  5 - 16
Type :  Research paper
Title :  Groups between withdrawal and creation
Author(s) :  Florence, Giust-Desprairies
Abstract :  Based on her work on the collective imaginary as a dynamic system of representations and on the crisis in groups as a failure of the imaginary system and a brutal return of denied contents, the author reveals the social imaginary meanings which, today, have this capacity to attack the organising and defensive functions of groups. She wonders about the factors which promote a renewal of meaning and link. Using a clinical social approach which allows her to identify the processes of identity withdrawal and tension of groups, she sets the conditions which allow groups to find possible ways to elaborate what they experience, in terms of deconstruction, and to make them more able to face internal or external strangeness with less of a feeling of persecution.
Keywords:  group, withdrawal, creation
Pages :  17 - 28
Type :  Research paper
Title :  The idea of community in modernity
Author(s) :  Jean, Dubost
Abstract :  By choosing, at the end of the l 9th cenrury, to oppose two words that until then had been synonymous : community and society, in an attempt to think about the cultural mutations of modernity, Tönnies and the sociological tradition were expressing the fears raised by the repeated crises of economic liberalism. by the ideology of individualism and the break in traditional social links, by the seriousness of the social issue. but also the hope for possible progress thanks to sociological research. One century later, in a comparable context, the return of the community idea - despite the fact that the hostility of the republican tradition is still active - invites us to take up examining it again as a problem of modernity rather than as a more or less mythical representation of the origin of human societies.
Keywords:  idea of community, modernity
Pages :  29 - 38
Type :  Research paper
Title :  Can we give anwers to the "crisis" without modifying the structure of organisation?
Author(s) :  Gérard, Mendel
Abstract :  Can the economic crisis which started in 1973 and which. with the introduction of new technology, so deeply modified methods of work, be handled outside a multidimensional perspective? The author does not think so. Psychosociological intervention must take into account, at the very heart of the act of work in institutions, the organisation of work which is defined here as a heavy structure, i.e. the sum of the listed divisions of work, to which should be added the institutional division of work. Without repeating the description of the arrangement introduced inside the existing organisation of work by sociopsychoanalysis in associations, establishments, firms, schools..., the author shows how its functioning helps not only to solve work problems but contributes to the development of individual psychosociality and collective values.
Keywords:  crisis, structure of organisation, structure, organisation
Pages :  39 - 44
Type :  Research paper
Title :  Work : Crisis or occultation ?
Author(s) :  Dominique, Lhuilier
Abstract :  Two conceptions of crisis as threat or as opportunity stand out in the discussion on work crisis. Various paradigms of work found such positions and the necessary distinction between work and employment is underlined in order to identify work as an activity and a confrontation with the real. Modifications in work situations which accompany the employment crisis contribute to occultation of practices and to focusing on prescribed or dreamt of work. This problematic is illustrated by analysis of changes in hospital facilities and of intervention practices by clinicians consulted about "managing professional stress" of health workers.
Keywords:  work, crisis, occultation
Pages :  45 - 58
Type :  Research paper
Title :  A collective action of successful resistance: expropriation of rural inhabitants of Savines.
Author(s) :  Jean, Vincent
Abstract :  The resistance of the inhabitants of Savines, a highland village in the French Alps, to the expropriation conditions proposed by the State and the French national electricity company (EDF), is an outstanding case. It was the most important movement of rural population in France since 1945 (l,300 people). In 1955-57, during the crisis between the expropriated people and the expropriating agency, J. Dubost, a well-known psychosociologist, stayed for two years on the site and wrote an analysis (1973) about his intervention as a consultant with a detailed description of the exceptional collective action of protest undertaken by the inhabitants. This article studies the mainly psychosociological aspects of the "social movement" of the Savinois, based on the remarkable observations of J. Dubost and in the light of the works of authors, like J. Barus-Michel (1987, 1993) and W. Gamson (1989, 1992), who theorized collective actions of protest. The expropriated people succeeded in proposing an "alternative frame of mobilization" to analyze the expropriation, using very different norms from those of the previous frame of analysis-, the "legitimating frame" established by the State and supported by the expropriating agency. The imaginary construction of a collective identity appeared very quickly and was efficient (cf. the splitting of affects and the alignment of individual imaginaries on the collective imaginary) in the victorious resistance of the Savinois fighting to get satisfactory compensations for their expropriation.
Keywords:  collective action of successful resistance: expropriation, of rural inhabitants of Savines, Savines
Pages :  59 - 76
Type :  Research paper
Title :  The institutional and political construction of the urban crisis
Author(s) :  Michel, Bonetti
Abstract :  The crisis which is shaking the outskirts of towns and the main manifestations of it, vandalism, delinquence, aggressions, are usually exclusively attributed to the impoverishment of the areas of social housing generated by the economic crisis. These analyses tend to exonerate political leaders and public institutions from all responsibility. This article aims to show that unemployment and the impoverishment of the population do not mechanically produce urhan violence, even though they supply the ingredients. Political authorities and public institutions take part in the construction of the social relations which they draw to the attention of the media. As a result they coproduce urhan violence. These districts and their inhahitants tend to be devalued and sometimes ahandoned by the political leaders and public institutions, who thus largely contribute to the destructuring of social relations and increase the difficulty of socialisation.
Keywords:  institutional, political construction, institutional construction, urban crisis, crisis, urban
Pages :  77 - 90
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Bonetti, M. (1998) La construction institutionnelle et politique de la crise urbaine . Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), V(09), pp. 77-90
Title :  lntermediate spaces of cultural experiences
Author(s) :  André, Sirota
Abstract :  Various economic, political, demographic and cultural factors, including technological changes, migrations, the closing-down or relocation of firms, place the individual in a situation in which he/she is being broken or torn away, much more than one in which he/she feels a sense of continuity. The feeling of making sense, which is transmitted and built up through social relationships and the succession of generations. is like interrupted, and only absurdity is then experienced. The individual is no longer in touch with the group. Politicians, educators, social workers, psychologists take part, from their respective positions, in the implementation of schemes aimed at rehabilitation, alphabetization, reenergization, job reconversion, repairing, to the benefit of youngsters, women, migrant-workers, unemployed persons, and all those who are placed "in between". When enrolling individuals in training courses which most of the times generate crisis, do we always know what we are doing ? This article is a contribution to the theory and practice of intermediate spaces.
Keywords:  cultural experiences, intermediate spaces
Pages :  91 - 108
Type :  Research paper
Title :  The crisis ? Which crisis ?
Author(s) :  René, Badache ; Viviane, Chassergue ; Yves, Guerre
Abstract :  What does it really mean today to claim oneself to be a Theatre Company engaging in cultural and social intervention? Using cultural action as a tool for social change permits to formulate hypotheses concerning the nature of the crisis, or crises, with which we are confronted, and to understand that what is at stake is primarily a Joss of meaning caused by the gradual disappearance of the loci where citizens can negotiate. The capacity of role-playing and of rebuilding ties between the individual and the society, that the practice of Forum-Theatre possesses, then allows to open transaction spaces in which "living-together" can be rehabilitated. So can society be itself.
Keywords:  crisis, loss of meaning
Pages :  109 - 122
Type :  Research paper
Title :  Crises of social support and community health action
Author(s) :  Michel, Joubert
Abstract :  Representations on the social fracture or the rupture of the social link tend to mask process that cross the French society and that refer to the mutation of social foundations (position,support, regulation) for many social groups. For working, like for affective relationships or for the participation to public space, social foundations are the ground of important displacements, making for disadvantaged and vulnerable people, necessary to do a work of social resetting. Conjunctures of most important perturbations in the course of this work, studied in several surveys on mental health, can be to the origin of tensions that will feed depressions, mental discomfort and all the range of addictions. Conversely, collective and individual mobilizations correspond generally to the new social arrangement production that allow persons not only to make face (coping), but also to build an identity and corresponding resources. The importance of community actions resides in this potential of strengthening this work of resetting in situation of crisis, more than assistance or management of resources already constituted.
Keywords:  Crises, social support, community health action
Pages :  123 - 134
Type :  Research paper
Title :  Territories for living
Author(s) :  Martine, Theveniaut-Muller
Abstract :  This contribution aims at explaining how an order put in by the Ministry of Applied Research, and concerning a predominantly rural territory, the department of Aude, in France, underwent a progressive change of nature. Exchanges of practices proposed to persons in charge of actions aimed at rehabilitating unemployed persons by means of creating activities - which was the theme to which my research report was devoted - lead to a reflexion dynamic. It creates in these persons a feeling of shared belonging and the collective awareness to be "social entrepreneurs". At the conclusion of this study, they decide to set up a network of actors, to improve their practices, become an efficient lever for social intervention, a force for proposal.
Keywords:  territory, territories, living
Pages :  135 - 152
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Theveniaut-Muller, M. (1998) Des territoires pour vivre . Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), V(09), pp. 135-152
Title :  The interdependent economy: a particular ordering of the social link, employment and public space
Author(s) :  Jean-Louis, Laville
Abstract :  Contemporary mutations produce a recomposition of the relations between economic and social. The previous compromise rested on a social redistribution effected by deductions from an expanding market economy : in a sense, solidarity was indexed on growth. The crisis of this model produces great disturbances in society, and even all sorts of disorder, with a return of the utopia of "market society" which proved to be catastrophic last century. However, new relations also emerge hetween social link, employment and public space which can take part in a redefinition of what is economic and what is social and lead to a deepening of democracy: this contribution is devoted to the comprehensive approach to these socio-economic practices as well as to the analysis both of the stakes involved and the risks and limits.
Keywords:  independent economy, social link,employment, public space
Pages :  153 - 168
Type :  Research paper
Title :  Use and abuse of the notion of crisis
Author(s) :  André, Lévy
Abstract :  One cannot open a newspaper, overhear a conversation, without meeting the reference to some" crisis" -regarding a personal event, an economic, political, social situation ... What is the meaning of such a generalization of a notion which has also been, for a number of years, the ohject of fruitful research, particularly in the field of clinical social psychology? Is it a way to render it more familiar, less threatening, or rather to conjure the anxieties linked with an uncertain future, through their dramatization (catastrophism) ? Or else, does it translate a general and diffuse expectation of radically new ideas and experiences. sustaining hopes for a refoundation of society? The repeated reference to the notion of crisis may also however be the sign of an actual awareness concerning the fragility of human institutions, and of the internal tensions which undermine them in permanence.
Keywords:  use, abuse, notion, notion of crisis
Pages :  169 - 178
Type :  Research paper
Title : 
Author(s) :  Dominique, Lhuilier
Pages :  179 - 180
Type :  Book review
Title : 
Author(s) :  Jean, Vincent
Pages :  181 - 184
Type :  Book review
APA :  Vincent, J. (1998) Gérard MENDEL, Jean-Luc PRADES, Debora SADA : La mouvance des communistes critiques. Enquête sur le désarroi militant, une écoute sociopsychanalytique ". Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), V(09), pp. 181-184
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