Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie et de Gestion des Comportements Organisationnels (RIPCO)
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Volume XVI • Issue 39 • 2010 (Already published)
(Regular issue)
What images of Work and Leaders
Issue content
Title :  Synoptic schema: what images of work and leaders?
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  2 - 3
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0002
Type :  Prologue
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Title :  The image of managers: a cross-section of views
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion ; Frank, Bournois
Abstract :  Image is everything. However a belief, even one unanimously shared, is not necessarily the truth - in the same way as one unanimously refuted is not necessarily fiction. But in a democratic state of law, it is shared representations that form opinion, laws and standards. In order to capture these images that cut across their intersubjective views on work and managers and decide whether they are true or false, our researchers collected several thousand pieces of data (articles, interviews, surveys, published documents and REX). They then divided these into three groups: negative, rational and positive. Finally, they measured the relevance of the two extreme views by comparing them with annual surveys of several thousand employees describing the realities of their work. Unfortunately, images of suffering at work account for 77% of the reports filed but describe a reality that relates on average to only 8% (up to 15% in bad years) of employees (bankruptcies, sell-outs, relocations, public reform or critical incidents). Representations praising work account for only 8% of the epistolary spaces although they describe the reality of 85 to 92% of employees; hence the image of suffering at work, which spreads like a gunpowder trail, is less than factual. Viewing work as some sort of pathogenic agent is shared by attorneys, psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, educators, sociologists, labor inspectors, occupational physicians and journalists and above all by 8 to 15% of actual employees in interviews on work (6000 employees; Ipsos Accor). In their files, the reader discovers a variety of ways in which a business is implicitly or explicitly compared to a place of torture, violence, harassment, suffering, fanaticism, stress or simply a barrage of psychosocial risks. Managers are depicted as guardians, seducers, harassers, fanatics or perverts. The media benevolently relay these publicly-owned caricatures. Viewing work as an agent of good health is advocated by coaches, consultants, corporate managers, administrators, professionals, the Church and above all by 85 to 92% of actual employees in interviews about their jobs (6000 employees; Ipsos Accor). In their files, the reader discovers random pictures of a business implicitly or explicitly compared to a place of pleasure, joy and progression, particularly when the work is well done, useful and recognized. A place of wellbeing and self-realisation, where a personality can develop and where people can really dazzle under pressure. This creates the desire for one’s children to follow the same career path, and enjoy the same exciting life. Managers are presented as guides, mentors, coaches. They sometimes make mistakes, but they listen, learn, understand and pass on their knowledge; they devise solutions and act on them. The media hardly ever portrays these true images because they lack the weight of public opinion.
Keywords:  images, representations, managers, suffering, work
Pages :  5 - 8
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0005
Type :  Other
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Title :  Thanks
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  21 - 24
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0021
Type :  Thanks
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Title :  La revue internationale de psychosociologie. Des regards croisés sur les problématiques humaines et organisationnelles
Author(s) :  Marc, Bonnet
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  25 - 26
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0025
Type :  Editorial
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Title :  The work, the hammer, the black holes and the skull
Author(s) :  Maurice, Thévenet
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  27 - 36
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0027
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Work and managers: controversial and corrupted images. When intentionality dictates the essentials of sense
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion ; Frank, Bournois
Abstract :  To establish the images, we referred to the representations from the people who assess work and managers. The professionals in social issues generally put forward images that devalue managers; coaching professionals value work and managers. The results produce several surprises largely demonstrating that the images do not correspond with reality; they are generally far worse.
Keywords:  images, managers, valuing devaluing, work
Pages :  37 - 48
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  The diversity of the images of work and the images of managers Happiness in work to suffering in work. Rational manager to perverse manager
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion ; Stéphane, Trébucq
Abstract :  In order to study the images of work and of managers, we first of all set up a corpus of 177 professional headings. We then undertook a classification that shows 135 headings on suffering and criticism of managers and 42 on the pleasure of work and respect for managers. It appears that management lecturers produce positive images whilst sociologists produce negative images. We then present the paradigms used, the supporters, the position and the issues before giving the whole corpus as a bibliography.
Keywords:  happiness, pleasure, managers, suffering, work
Pages :  49 - 68
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0049
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Deconstruction of information mechanisms. The neurocognitive falsification of sense. How do the falsification processes of sense operate?
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion
Abstract :  Research into the production of images on work and managers gives so many contradictory results it is useful to examine the production process behind these images in order to deconstruct them. It can be seen that falsifications abound, be it on the internet, on the radio or in specialist works, but these falsifications are not all the same type. The first type concerns omissions of data or the addition of false data. The second type concerns true data, but data which is not in its situated context – instead being used to describe other sectors, other realities. This is harder to detect because it is the subject of media hype and is based on the compassion of opinion which is unable to imagine that suffering can be instrumentalized. The third type concerns the propagation of false information and media indoctrination.
Keywords:  falsification, internet, journalists, media, lies, deception, influence
Pages :  69 - 80
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0069
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Managing: a work activity. The case of the directors in the French public hospital sector
Author(s) :  Christian, Chauvigné ; Laetitia, Lauade
Abstract :  Our article presents the results of a research study conducted between 2004 and 2008 about the activities of directors in the French public hospital sector. We define activity as an individual’s mobilization of resources in a specific context in order to attain a goal. We refer as directors individuals situated at the top of the hierarchies of organizations who have the mandate to lead the development of those activities and have the institutional power to do so. We have examined the activity of these hospital directors using an approach combining interviews (with directors and the people around them) and the collection of traces of activity. Firstly, we show how the directors adopt a vision of their organization that reveals all the constraints that must be taken into account. On the basis of this vision, they manage these constraints and maintain equilibriums. This diagnostic activity is organized around two main objectives: to design a strategy and effectively operate the hospital on the one hand, and to find compromises in order to legitimize the decisions made on the other. We then describe the director’s activity and how he * creates and develop « room-to-manœuvre » and autonomy from the institution the hospital falls under.
Keywords:  activity, compromise, leader, room-to-manoeuvre, hospital, healthcare manager, qualitative methods
Pages :  81 - 108
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0081
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  The image of work according to Y generation. An intergenerational comparison on 400 subjects using a cognitive mapping technique
Author(s) :  Jean, Pralong
Abstract :  “Generation Y” behaviors have become a popular topic in managerial and general press. But no research in management science has come to characterize this population and its differences with its predecessors. This research addresses this gap and attempts to describe the characteristics of the relationship to employment of “Generation Y” workers. The concept of cognitive schema is used to describe how individuals organize their knowledge about careers and employment. The process of sensemaking is used to model the adjustment of individuals to the demands of work contexts. The cognitive schemas are studied with cognitive maps. The maps of three groups of individuals are compared: “Generation Y” before (N = 160) and after their initial recruitment (N = 127) and employees of the previous generation (N = 113). The results show that the cognitive schemas of Y employees don’t differ from those of members of the previous generation. They differ, however, from those of the Y students. The results tend to shows that the Y’s schemas don’t depend on their generational membership.
Keywords:  cognitive mapping, students, Y generation , cognitive schemas, sensemaking
Pages :  109 - 134
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0109
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Key features and typology of Moroccan company directors. Quantitative analysis of 160 profiles and questionnaires. Using the Ward method - hierarchical ascending classification. Implications for management development in Morocco. »
Author(s) :  Frank, Bournois ; Karim, Gassemi
Abstract :  In this study we examine the population of managers in large Moroccan companies. The main objective of this study is to establish different classes and typologies of Moroccan managers. Three methodological steps were defined and carried out. An exploratory survey based on a open ended question interviews. This is followed by a quantitative approach using a questionnaire and a confirmatory analysis. One hundred and sixty seven Moroccan managers from thirteen different sectors were interviewed. Four typological groups of Moroccan managers were identified in this research: the “new generation” of manager, the “innovative” manager, the “entrepreneur” manager and the “traditional” manager.
Keywords:  Moroccan leader classification, high-performance Moroccan leader, managerial performance, Moroccan typology leader, powerful Moroccan leader characteristics
Pages :  135 - 160
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0135
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  How do managers regulate? Presentation of what a manager actually does to enforce regulation, using extracts from feedback on experience, processed by Alceste 4.9
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion ; Stéphane, Trébucq
Abstract :  All the professions of people who manage other people, whether in the public or private sector, share a common activity, regulation. In this activity, they have to assess situations, standards, differences and seek out the least onerous method to regulate them. The regulation methods depend on two pivotal factors: the gravity of the situation and the material nature versus the human nature of the situation. The more critical the situation and the more it involves human nature, the more the representations play a critical role in these assessments.
Keywords:  representations, responsibility, managers, regulation
Pages :  161 - 172
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0161
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  The profession’s risks
Author(s) :  Dominique, Paturel
Abstract :  The occupational social work is tested severely in front of manager evolutions. Historic actor of the management of the staff in its social dimension, the social worker is in a dilemma on its place and its profession. The author, occupational social worker, looks through its experiment on the occasion of a break on its route, what takes place in this activity linked to the “care” taken in genre’s stakes. This glance will take into account the violence coming out of the practice of management but also the strategies of defence at first and emancipation secondly which the autor has organized
Keywords:  occupational social work, psychosocial violence, care
Pages :  173 - 188
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0173
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Organisations producing incompetence
Author(s) :  Yves-Frédéric, Livian
Abstract :  A flow of literature has been written about knowledge management and competence but it is rarely analyzed that organisations can also loose knowledge and destroy competence. Adopting a critical approach, this article describes the organisational process that leads to incompetence: too frequent changes, bad working conditions, excessive faith in new technologies…A better understanding of these facts would lead to more realistic decisions
Keywords:  competence, decision, incompetence, organization
Pages :  189 - 204
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0189
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  Alarm signals and critical psychosocial incidents. Why did the token space accorded to stress at work explode in France after June 1998?
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion
Abstract :  In the field of psychopathology, moral suffering is a question of definition and is a recurrent issue that raises its ugly head before each election and then disappears below the surface again afterwards. The turning point came in 1995. After this, moral suffering took its place alongside accidents at work, almost under the same heading. It seems that the plethora of publications on the subject began with the Aubry law on employment (including the 35-hour week) and then collapsed in 2005, the year of the riots. In 2009, with the wave of suicides at France Télécom as flagged up by the Sud trades union, there was a flurry of conferences, meetings, symposiums and seminars on stress at work. There will be bookshelves of treatises to accompany this upsurge, which will trigger several laws of circumstances on harassment and testing, which will be used to sharpen conflictuality within the world of work.
Keywords:  alert, psychopathology, signal, suffering, symptoms, suicides
Pages :  205 - 226
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Essay on clinical Semiology of the signs of suffering in the workplace
Author(s) :  Dave, Sheehan ; Jean-Claude, Casalegno
Abstract :  Suffering in the workplace has always existed, but until now, it has been seen from a « physiological » point of view. Nowadays, however, it appears to be taking on a psychic dimension. This requires us to look at suffering from a new and different perspective, in order to comprehend how it operates in the minds of its perpetrators, as well as the consequences it may have on its victims and its eventual remedies. Thus, in the literature as well as in recent academic thinking, certain « subjective » disciplines that have long been considered with suspicion are now coming to the forefront. This brings to light key issues that have, until now, been conveniently ignored. We are finally beginning to understand that a psycholical or psychic approach enables us to take into account aspects of reality that are just as important as those dealt with by the so-called « hard » Sciences : ie. those which link mankind with his work.
Keywords:  civility, clinical, inhibition of action, psychopathology, semiology, meaning, suffering at work, stress, subjectivity, violence, identity
Pages :  227 - 240
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  The negative factors in the image of public managers. Presentation of the survey on the negative images of managers. Empirico-inductive type exploratory research. Review of professional literature in France up to 2009.
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion ; Sybille, Persson
Abstract :  There are 4 factors undermining the image of public managers. The proximity factor was singled out as being linked to the behavior of the manager having to criticise a member of staff. The psychoanalytical factor is linked to the character of the public service, compassionate and caring: the staff expect managers to fulfil a parental role, in other words to meet all their needs. The medical or psychiatric factor is linked to projections by sociologist psychiatrists who see managers as the root of all evil within their office. The final factor is quantitative. Faced with demands that are spiralling out of control due to their inherent “free” status, the public sector is costing more and more whilst the number and quality of the services is stagnating or shrinking. The worst images are reserved for politicians and junior managers.
Keywords:  murder, father, prohibitive, closeness, psychoanalysis, managers, public sector
Pages :  241 - 264
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0241
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  Anita Roddick's Word Stretching: Conflating Philanthropy with Green Marketing
Author(s) :  Jennifer, Takhar
Abstract :  This paper analyses Dame Anita Roddick as a pioneering and often marginalised “ethical, eco-feminist, green capitalist.” My main question is where does philanthropy begin for Roddick? Does it begin with deeply embedding products in alterity (including the Other in one’s mission statements)? Is it possible to argue that self-professed green companies, like hers has claimed to be, are inherently philanthropic? If we define philanthropy as “caring for others” then ecological concerns which involve saving us all, saving the planet, must also merit the honorific philanthropic title.
Keywords:  brand image, consumer behavior, philanthropy, green marketing, branding, corporate social responsibility, cause-related marketing
Pages :  265 - 282
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0265
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  The devalued image of the boss's son in the trainee's gaze
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  283 - 285
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0283
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  The depreciated image of the director in the eyes of a customer representative
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  286 - 288
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0286
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  The devalued image of the director in the eyes of his assistant
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  289 - 292
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0289
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  In the eyes of a collaborator the devalued image of the director
Abstract :  no abstract
Pages :  293 - 295
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0293
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  The neurocognitive production of pleasure at work. Presentation of a survey on the positive image of work. Analysis based on feedback and neuroscience
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion ; Sybille, Persson
Abstract :  Happiness at work is less contingent upon the type of work than the conditions in which the work takes place. The key is setting one’s own work rhythm. Analysis of the REX allowed us to extract a series of relative and comparative principles of happiness at work. The leaders of opinion are philosophers, religious leaders and working professionals who see work as a place of wellbeing, happiness, resolution, development and protection
Keywords:  happiness at work
Pages :  297 - 320
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  Is an employee savings plan, a personnel motivation tool for the manager of an SME?
Author(s) :  Laure, Chanot ; Nathalie, Dagorn ; Olivier, Dietsch
Abstract :  In France, profit sharing includes all the mechanisms for employees to be financially involved with the results of their company and/or to build up savings through it. This article focuses on the implementation of employee savings plans in SMEs, where the introduction of such mechanisms is a voluntary measure. By a practical case study, the article aims to determine whether the implementation of an employee savings plan really constitutes a personnel motivational tool for the manager of an SME. It concludes on the role of the public accountant as a support for profit sharing concerns.
Keywords:  profit savings, corporate saving plan, employee savings plan, SME, motivation, collective retirement saving plan
Pages :  321 - 336
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0321
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
Title :  From competencies of manager to competent manager
Author(s) :  Denis, Cristol
Abstract :  If competencies are useful to describe the occupation of managers, it miss its goals because this occupation seems complex. List of competencies describes what managers should do rather than what they do realy. This text aims firstly to build down technical, conceptual or human skills more often mentioned by authors and secondly to show in wich way each skills blend with a trait of character, an attitude, a social orientation and make analytical approach illusory. In fact competencies taken with an analytical point of view betrayed more often reality and forgot the context and the situations of application. To overcome the critical sociological perspective, we can consider competencies and their stake, and stop believing competencies are exclusively personnal and out of contact from contexts and situations. Three perspectives appear : the first one is to consider matter which develop competencies in a less splited way, (each matter owning its truth in its perimetra) more hybrid, (each matter attenuating its own truth with others). The second perspective engages managers in a more important reflexion to tie situations and to create needed hybridation to situate themselves, to decide and to act. The third perspective encompass the talent fashion with the idea of an alchemy of uncommon competencies, an immanent quality of borned manager.
Keywords:  skills, job, manager
Pages :  337 - 360
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0337
Type :  Research paper
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Title :  The manager pyramid. Proposal for a model describing the stages of organisational maturity while exercising responsibility
Author(s) :  Christian, Bourion
Abstract :  Under the terms of the study, we put forward a pyramid showing a dynamic view of managers as they develop, tracing their development potential from a psychosociological point of view.
Keywords:  managers, pyramid
Pages :  361 - 370
DOI :  10.3917/rips.039.0361
Type :  Research paper
URL Cairn:
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