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Volume X • Issue 23 • 2004 (Already published)
 
(Regular issue)
 
Human rights: crisis and challenge
 
 
Issue content
 
Title :  Introduction
Author(s) :  Jean-Claude, Filloux ; Florence, Giust-Desprairies
Pages :  5 - 8
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0005
Type :  Introduction
APA :  Filloux, J. et Giust-Desprairies, F. (2004) Introduction. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 5-8. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0005
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-5.htm
 
 
Title :  Human rights: ambivalence and tension
Author(s) :  Danièle, Lochak
Abstract :  Human rights have not been written in stone once and for all: they are fashioned by a series of tensions, which constitute the spring of a dynamic by which they are continually transformed: tension between power and law – the law which protects against the power but has no force unless backed by the State; tension between the primacy of the law without which there is no legally constituted state, therefore no freeedom, and the democratic principle which supposes respect for the general will, expressed by the representatives of the people; tension between the demand for autonomy which is at the heart of individual freedom and the aspiration to social justice which supposes the intervention of the State and cannot be obtained without encroaching upon this autonomy; tension between the claim of human rights to be universal and the necessary respect for the composite identities of groups or peoples, also erected as a fundamental right.
Pages :  9 - 24
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0009
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Lochak, D. (2004) Les droits de l'homme : ambivalences et tensions. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 9-24. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0009
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-9.htm
 
 
Title :  Right and wrong side of human rights
Author(s) :  Willem, Doise
Abstract :  Human rights are defined as normative social representations. They are the subject of a certain common understanding across national and cultural boundaries. They give rise to different stances according to the capacities attributed to institutions and individuals to have them respected. Furthermore, there is a wide gap between adhering to the principles of human rights and tolerance regarding violations in concrete situations. An ethnocentric use of human rights is often observed. A special danger which threatens the implementation of these rights has its origin in the fact that they convey an egalitarian vision of mankind which obscures the many conflicts which run through it.
Pages :  25 - 37
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0025
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Doise, W. (2004) L'endroit et l'envers des droits de l'homme. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 25-37. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0025
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-25.htm
 
 
Title :  Submission / insubordination, influence impulse and human rights
Author(s) :  Adam, Kiss
Abstract :  At first sight, human rights seem to us to be evident: we feel them to be so, since they correspond to our fundamental needs (for example, we believe, for as long as we work, that we have a right to work). It would not be the same for others, especially if they decided to make it a duty for us, an obligation even, (imagine if someone out of work started to demand work from you). The question of human rights becomes even more disturbing when, taken out of the individual or interpersonal context, it is posed on the collective, social level. (What about the right to work in a country where mass unemployment is considered as “structural”? Where do we place ourselves?) Lack of respect for human rights can result from an act of obedience to an order from authority or an act of conformism to a group norm. What position should be adopted between conflicting principles? The study presented here seeks to understand what separates and unites the perception of one’s own rights (and needs) and that of the rights (and needs) of others, with a view to an explanation of what motivates behaviour, submissive or not, with reference to human rights.
Pages :  39 - 50
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0039
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Kiss, A. (2004) (In)soumission, pulsion d'emprise et droits humains. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 39-50. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0039
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-39.htm
 
 
Title :  Human rights in the desert: the subject, between desolation and law
Author(s) :  Ghyslain, Lévy
Abstract :  Between Man and the human, it there any room to think about men? That is the problem that seeks to offer itself here as a possible alternative between “the rights of Man” and “human rights”. The multiplicity of men, taken in the contingent nature of their daily reality, in the history of their conflicts, the diversity of their disputes, and misunderstandings, expresses this “trade” between them, which defines the policy as well as the local practice of their universal rights. That means that the universality of the rights of men is not a principle, but should first be a practice of rights, applied to the relations between them, i.e. the free space which separates them and reunites them, in the city. That would be the other way, the way of the rights of men. It is not the way of the rights referred to the generic concept of Man, a concept that is sovereign, substantialised, anhistoric, worthy of a dominating universalism, and an internationality which has lost all contact with the reality of the here and now. This way is not the way of the rights of humans either, ultimate belonging to the human race, for subjects who no longer belong anywhere, displaced subjects, uprooted, isolated, being part of nothing, and whose existence, reduced to the biological necessities of survival, is reduced to “adapting to the desert”. Haven’t the rights of men to be thought about between these two concepts of fundamental rights, like a social practice of law, on this side of any vision of the world, as close as possible to the experience of being together, of being with, a practice which gives its true meaning to the notion of universality?
Pages :  51 - 67
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0051
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Lévy, G. (2004) Les droits des hommes dans le désert : le sujet, entre désolation et droit. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 51-67. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0051
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-51.htm
 
 
Title :  Fellow creatures as unconscious organisers
Author(s) :  Florence, Giust-Desprairies
Abstract :  As the organising or regulating principle which is part of the myth of the ONE, the unit of reason and being, republican universalism is based on the affirmation of equality of rights between all men considered as fellow creatures beyond their differences. This universalist point of view very often leads to a refusal of cultural and social difference even if it pretends to accept it. Thus, the otherness grasped in an ideal mode which thinks of others as identical to oneself, is replaced by a need, linked to the passage to a multicultural society, to get along with others in modest, local, provisional arrangements. Transcendence is moved. It leaves the verticality which the ideal gave it to establish itself in a “between-us” which is seen to be much more enigmatic and worrying. What is at stake is the advent of a new figure of otherness in the School as an alternative to a rise in barbarity.
Pages :  69 - 75
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0069
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Giust-Desprairies, F. (2004) Le semblable comme organisateur inconscient. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 69-75. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0069
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-69.htm
 
 
Title :  Seeking human rights in compulsory education
Author(s) :  François, Audigier
Abstract :  Although human rights are not ignored, education about citizenship today has a prominent place in the speech and preoccupations of the actors of public life and school life. Although these two educational intentions, human rights and citizenship, have many points in common, they are not identical. Between universalism and priority given to the community of belonging, the differences are conceptual and political hesitations as well as practical and didactic hesitations. A rapid review of the history of schools in France shows the priority given to education about citizenship and the relatively unobtrusive place that human rights occupy. Widening our investigation, we seek the latter in the curricula of several European states before presenting some results from an enquiry carried out among primary school teachers in France. These explorations lead us to note a discreet presence of human rights, a discretion that is likely to arouse some worries.
Pages :  77 - 93
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0077
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Audigier, F. (2004) À la recherche des droits de l'homme dans l'enseignement obligatoire. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 77-93. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0077
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-77.htm
 
 
Title :  Human rights and cultural relativism
Author(s) :  Marc, Augé
Abstract :  Human rights are a universal value, but they were formulated at a particular time in Western history. It was at about the same time that the West began to be more systematically interested in cultural differences as such. This double approach was interesting and significant. She did not think the reference to the universal and the observation of differences as contradictory. On the contrary, it could even rely on the observation of these differences to challenge Western usages. This intellectual attitude is already that of Montaigne for whom every man carries in him "the image of the human condition", but which does not find the cruelties of the Guarani Tupis more ferocious than those which the French show in their war of religions . Montesquieu gives his Persians a lucid and critical look at French society, but he does not idealize the morals of the harem.
Pages :  95 - 97
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0095
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Augé, M. (2004) Droits de l'homme et relativisme culturel. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 95-97. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0095
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-95.htm
 
 
Title :  Rights of man or rights of others
Author(s) :  André, Lévy
Abstract :  If violence is synonymous with life, it is vain to think that it is possible to eradicate it, one can only hope to attenuate it or displace it. Thus Democracy, of which Human Rights are the keystone, has tried to establish Reason as the privileged way to civilise conflicts. However, this experience is based on a double ignorance: ignorance of the contingent character of the notion of Reason, dependent on the particular historic circumstances in which it was born. Yet, human Rights are universal or do not exist. Moreover, referred to a legal kind of notion of obligation, they apply only to communities limited by borders, excluding from their field those who are not a part of it. The systematic breaching of them by the very people who are the guarantors reveals what ought to be hidden to preserve the dogma of universality which gives them their meaning: their normative, moral basis, which distinguishes man as a biological species, from his supposed humanity, the consequence of which is that they are denied to those (cockroaches, sub-humans...) in whom this “humanity” is not recognised. By limiting itself to fellows, the doctrine of Human Rights thus excludes Others, who are irremediably unknown and unknowable, not in their qualities or attributes, but as beings.
Pages :  99 - 107
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0099
Type :  Research paper
APA :  Lévy, A. (2004) Droits de l'homme ou droit de l'autre. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 99-107. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0099
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-99.htm
 
 
Title :  Original shame and the group
Author(s) :  Alain, Ferrant
Abstract :  “Original shame” can be seen as one of the organisers of groups. It forms a silent link between the members of a group, along the model of a denial pact. It constitutes a break and a bridge. Using the Gospel accounts as a basis, the author proposes the hypothesis of original shame represented by Judas and dialecticised with a shame which organises the link, represented by Peter.
Pages :  109 - 126
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0109
Type :  Studies
APA :  Ferrant, A. (2004) La honte originaire et le groupe. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 109-126. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0109
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-109.htm
 
 
Title :  Harassment: inflation of the imagination, deficiency of symbolism and denial of reality
Author(s) :  Dominique, Lhuilier
Abstract :  The craze for the notion of harassment must be put back into context to shed light on the phenomena of resonance which it has attracted. Appearing first on the work scene because of the penalising of sexual harassment, the reference to moral harassment, through the combination of metaphor and metonymy, allows us to condense all problems and difficulties and other malaises: the figure of harassment is a replica of the contemporary reading of the world of work, reduced to its subjective and inter-subjective dimensions, obscuring both work and its organisational context. The inflation of imagination borne by the ideology of individualism and the promotion of a narcissistic reflexiveness is all the more powerful as the social fabric lets go of its symbolic framework and reality is increasingly obscured.
Pages :  127 - 140
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0127
Type :  Studies
APA :  Lhuilier, D. (2004) Harcèlement : inflation imaginaire, déficience du symbolique et déni du réel. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 127-140. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0127
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-127.htm
 
 
Title :  Acedia as an ailment of disappointed ambitions: landmarks in theory and case studies
Author(s) :  Philippe, Robert-Demontrond ; Yann, Le Moal
Abstract :  In an economy where the relative importance of the material factors of production constantly decreases in favour of the importance of intangibles, new problems arise, linked to the new modes and techniques of psychological mobilisation of workers. These modes and techniques are effectively the basis of the appearance of suffering, of pathologies of a psychological nature, regularly presented as having no precedents. Unlike this perspective, here we trace the history of acedia, as a psychological ailment linked to a loss of faith, and show its pertinence in a society that values work as a factor of self-fulfilment.
Pages :  141 - 157
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0141
Type :  Studies
APA :  Le Moal, Y. et Robert-Demontrond, P. (2004) L'acédie comme mal des ambitions déçues : repères théoriques et études de cas. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 141-157. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0141
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-141.htm
 
 
Title :  Incest and the “totalitarian” family
Author(s) :  Radu, Clit
Abstract :  The story of a case of double incest – a boy sexually abused by both his parents – allows us to analyse the functioning of the family in question. Isolated processes in the psychotic transaction family are invoked as well as phenomena of power and a particular organisation. The trend to use the qualifier “totalitarian” to define a family with incestuous transactions is considered fertile. The study proposes four characteristics that are typical of a totalitarian group: discontinuity, closure, uncertainty, terror. These characteristics are used to understand the profound, unconscious functioning of the family in the case analysed. The distribution of omnipotence in this type of family emphasises its totalitarian nature. Thus, the distinction with the psychotic transaction family is clarified.
Pages :  159 - 173
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0159
Type :  Studies
APA :  Clit, R. (2004) Inceste et famille « totalitaire ». Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 159-173. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0159
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-159.htm
 
 
Title :  Book review. André SIROTA, FIGURES DE LA PERVERSION SOCIALE. Col. Pluriels de la psyché E.D.K. Editions Médicales et Scientifiques Paris, 2003
Author(s) :  Emmanuel, Diet
Pages :  175 - 178
DOI :  10.3917/rips.023.0175
Type :  Book review
APA :  Diet, E. (2004) Compte rendu d'ouvrage. André SIROTA, FIGURES DE LA PERVERSION SOCIALE. Col. Pluriels de la psyché E.D.K. Editions Médicales et Scientifiques Paris, 2003. Revue Internationale de Psychosociologie (RIP), X(23), pp. 175-178. DOI : 10.3917/rips.023.0175
URL Cairn:  https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-psychosociologie-2004-23-page-175.htm
 
 
 
 
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