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Volume XXIX • Issue 77 • 2023 (Under press)
 
Guest editor(s): Emmanuel, Abord de Chatillon ; Denis, Chênevert ; Nathalie, Delobbe ; David, Giauque ; Emilie, Vayre
 
From telework to hybridity: a new way of thinking about our organizations?
 
All around the world, the Covid-19 health crisis has forced companies to reorganize work abruptly, quickly and deeply, and telework has become a systematic work modality for many employees in a few days. This increase in telework is likely to continue. Indeed, if telework is a suitable answer to confinement and crisis situations, it also answers other demands of our society, such as the will to reduce real estate costs for companies, the ecological and economical wish to reduce travels, or the expectations of employees in terms of life balance and autonomy. This evolution is underway, but it is not without profoundly changing the way we work, both individually and collectively. This special issue aims at answering the different empirical and theoretical questions that arise around the capacity of organizations to function in a fluid and efficient way, as well as around the question of the efficiency of work collectives or that of a management of hybridity. The first axis is to study the impact of this profound change in terms of health at work, articulation between personal and professional life, maintaining the link to the organization, team functioning and performance and productivity at work. A second axis focuses on the exercise of leadership and management practices adapted to remote work, often associated with management by objectives, but which it is essential to characterize more finely. Finally, a third axis aims at better understanding how telework activity is carried out.
 
Issue content
 
Title :  The impact of forced telework on employees' well-being at work. An exploratory study carried out during the first containment in France.
Abstract :  This study examines the impact of telework on well-being at work, through the prism of the perceptions and feelings of employees who were forced to telework during the initial confinement. The research on well-being at telework mentions ambiguous effects, both positive and negative for the employee. In an exploratory logic, we wanted to understand if these effects remained on this new population of teleworkers, by comparing our results with previous literature on historical and voluntary telework. Our results show that some of the ideas in the literature are consistent with our findings, while at the same time highlighting some contradictions. However, the particularity of this study lies in the relationship between well-being in telework and autonomy on the one hand, and relationality on the other. The conception of well-being in telework is an individual one, with social, professional and emotional dimensions.
Keywords:  telework, confinement, well-being at work, relational, autonomy
Pages : 
Type :  Research paper
 
 
Title : 
Abstract :  This research exposes the results of a survey conducted in a public hospital in order to highlight the impact of telework and the COVID-19 crisis on work activity, its content, and its organization. To provide an answer to our questioning, we conducted retrospective semi-directive interviews with 30 non-medical staff. The questions concerned the way in which the work activity was carried out over two periods: the introduction of a confined and suffered telework during a health crisis; the implementation of a hybrid telework, perennial, at the end of the crisis. The analysis of these data highlights significant changes in work content and organization that continue after an initial period of confined telework and others that are not renewed. There is an acceleration of the digitization of work and new distinctions between teleworkable and non-teleworkable tasks. The actors reorganized their tasks in a first phase of confined telework and strongly increased their autonomy, then in the second phase, teleworkers experienced the return of a more traditional monitoring and control of the activity. These changes underline the importance of adequate management development and formal support for hospital workers to ensure effective and sustainable telework practices for the organisation and the workers.
Keywords:  teleworking, hospital, COVID-19, work activity, tasks
Pages : 
Type :  Research paper
 
 
Title :  Perceptions of Work–Life Balance and Coworker Support Promote Teleworker Well-Being: Survey of the Swiss Public Sector During COVID-19
Abstract :  With the rapid increase of remote work due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to understand if previously identified job resources are still pertinent when telework is compulsory and how flexible work arrangements are linked to employee well-being. This study aimed to assess the potential mediating effects of a perceived favorable work-life balance environment and coworker support between perceived new ways of working (NWW) practices (e.g., telecommuting and flexible work hours) and employee engagement/exhaustion during the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on the job demands-resources model and perceived organizational support theory we hypothesized that perceptions of flexibility are positively related to a work environment conducive to work–life balance and that work-related resources will directly and indirectly affect employee well-being. The data comes from a survey of 1,373 Swiss public sector employees. Results showed that perceived schedule flexibility and the ability to communicate with colleagues and supervisors helped promote employees’ well-being and that these relationships were partially mediated by a perceived favorable work–life balance environment and coworker support. These results suggest that an environment that encourages collaboration is key for public servants’ well-being in a compulsory telework context. Further, as this study examined the perception of employees, it also suggests that human resource policies may be ineffective if not accompanied by supportive management.
Keywords:  work-life balance, well-being, new ways of working, telework, COVID-19
Pages : 
Type :  Research paper
 
 
Title : 
Author(s) :  Charlotte, De Boer
Abstract :  The objective of this research is to analyze the strategies that both the organization and the new recruits can put in place to facilitate the integration of the new recruits in remote socialization conditions. It is based on a questionnaire survey carried out on a sample of 250 employees who started a new job in totally or partially remote working conditions in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. The results show first that whatever the frequency of telework, it would not show a direct significant link with affective organizational commitment. In a part-time or full-time telecommuting context, the introduction of meetings with colleagues quickly after starting work and informal, friendly online moments make it possible to increase the affective commitment of the new recruit with his or her organization. Our study also shows that proactive strategies such as feedback seeking and general socialization mediate the relationship between the frequency of telecommuting, meeting with the manager and colleagues, informal and friendly online moments, remote team meetings, and participation in a welcome session on the one hand and affective organizational commitment on the other. This research thus allows us to consider organizational levers on which to act in order to increase the sense of belonging of new recruits who start a new remote job.
Keywords:  new recruits, telework, organizational levers, proactive behaviors, affective organizational commitment
Pages : 
Type :  Research paper
 
 
Title : 
Author(s) :  Valentine, Donzelot
Abstract :  The Covid-19 pandemic forced organisations to implement telework. Some companies that were not in favour of it before the crisis had to adapt. In this context, this new form of work has significantly changed the interactions between the actors in the organisation. There was a lot of literature on telework before 2020, but social scientists had found that despite the technological feasibility, telework was not being implemented in organisations. One of the reasons for this is the fear of losing control by managers. Managers are used to controlling by sight. The advent of Covid-19 has forced teleworking on these organisations. Companies that are used to face-to-face management are implementing a new regulation to continue to monitor the execution of tasks. Due to this development, new areas of uncertainty are being created in the organisation and this opens up new perspectives for employees to renegotiate their position and power in the company. The case study of an SME shows that physical or digital visibility is an important issue in renegotiating one''s working environment. It was found that the introduction of telework changes the power relations between the actors in the company.
Keywords:  Telework, visibility at work, organisational regulations, case study, Covid-19
Pages : 
Type :  Research paper
 
 
Title :  Well-being on teleworking: do we still need a supervisor?
Abstract :  In response to sanitary risks caused by Covid-19 pandemic, thousand companies have widely established teleworking at home for their employees. Some of them ended up with full-time teleworking, some others alternated between on-site working and teleworking, while a little part stayed on-site all the time. In this context, matter of well-being preservation at work tuned out to be a central issue for leaders and supervisors. They have coped with many dangers: isolation, increased stress, mental workload, moral exhaustion, or else, blurring of work-life balance of teleworkers. This situation brings us to wonder whether workers have different needs in terms of leadership to preserve well-being, depending on their work configuration. To answer to this question, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 2968 employees in a French public organization between November and December 2020. Our results show that all work configurations require social support of supervisor, whereas teleworking configuration request more implication from him. Alternation between teleworking and on-site working call for a participative decision making, to which is added a need of manager’s exemplarity for full-time teleworking. In view of the results, a remote supervisor appears as an expanded supervisor.
Keywords:  Teleworking, Well-being at work, Remote management, Social support, Participative decision-making
Pages : 
Type :  Research paper
 
 
 
 
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